Notes 2

2. Climate and Landscape

1. Memoir, I, 84.

2. Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Record and a Study (London, 1882), P. 37.

3. Memoir, I, 57.

4. "A Note on Climate and Art," Modern Thought, III (June 1881), 153.

5. Ibid., p. 154.

6. Ibid. p. 155.

7. "Mr. George Meredith," Good Words, XL (July 1899), 481.

8.     The Songs and Sonnets of Shakespeare (London, 1885); The Sonnets of This Century (London, 1886); American Sonnets (London, 1889).

9. Memoir, I, 187.

10. See Memoir, I, 33.

11.   Charles Baudelaire, L'Art Romantique (Paris, 1931), P. 100 (trans. mine). For a suggestive, abundantly illustrated study of the use of landscape by nineteenth-century French writers, often to represent a highly fragmented and uncertain interior life, see Pierre Moreau, "De quelques paysages introspectifs," in Formen der Selbstdarstellung, ed. Gūnter Reichenkron and Erich Haase (Berlin, 1956), pp. 279-289.

12. Earth's Voices: Transcripts from Nature: Sospitra and Other Poems (London, 1884).

13.    "The Human Inheritance," cycle 1, part XII, The Human Inheritance, The New Hope, Motherhood (London, 1882), p. 23. Compare the remark of Charles de Gučrin: "Pour I'homme interieur il n'est pas sous le ciel/ De forme qui ne cache un sens spirituel." See Moreau, "De quelques paysages," P. 283.

14. Memoir, I, 118.

15. "The Human Inheritance," cycle IV, part II, p. 72.

16. See Memoir, I, 47.

17. Ibid., pp. II 5-116.

18. Ibid. p. 71.

19.   "The flesh-and-blood man," Hearn wrote in "First Impressions," "is only the visible end of an invisible column of force reaching out of the infinite past into the momentary present----only the material Symbol of an immaterial host." This was the theoretical basis of his concept of "superindividuality," a likeness of which operated in Sharp's sense of his own special insight into the life of women. "Only by scientific psychology," Hearn continued, "can the mystery of certain formidable characters be even partly explained; but any explanation must rest upon the acceptance, in some form or other, of the immense evolutional fact of psychical inheritance. And psychical inheritance signifies the superindividual-preexistence revived in compound personality." The Writings of Lafcadio Hearn, vol. IX:   Exotics and Retrospectives in Ghostly Japan (Boston, 1923), pp. 143-144. (It may be pertinent to note that the original edition of Exotics and Retrospectives appeared in 1898, during Sharp's lifetime.) For Hearn's development of these ideas into the concepts of the oneness of humanity and "world literature," see Beong-cheon Yu, An Ape of Gods: The Art and Thought of Lafcadio Hearn (Detroit, 1964), pp. 152, 175-179.

20. William Kingdon Clifford, Cosmic Emotion; also [Virchow on] the Teaching of Science (London, 1888).

21. "The New Hope," The Human Inheritance, pp. 106-107.

22. Patrick Geddes and J. Arthur Thompson, The Evolution of Sex (London, 1890), p. 267.

23. Ibid., P. 258.

24. "Transcripts from Nature," XVII, "Dawn Amid Scotch Firs," and XV, "A Green Wave," The Human Inheritance, pp. 142-143.

25. Dante Gabriel Rossetti: A Record and a Study (London, 1882), p. 335.

26. Glasgow University, Registration Roles and Catalogue, 1871-1873.

27. William Sharp, ed., Poems of Swinbume (Leipzig, 1901).

28. "Some Personal Reminiscences of Walter Pater," Atlantic Monthly, XXIV (December 1894), 804.

29. Memoir, I, 73-74.

3. London

1. Arthur Waugh, "Fiona Macleod: A Forgotten Mystery," Spectator, August 14, 1936, p. 277.

2. Ernest Rhys, "William Sharp and Fiona Macleod," Century, LXXIV (May 1907), 111. Quoted in Memoir, I, 170.

3. Ernest Rhys, Everyman Remembers (London, 1931), pp. 76-77. Rhys liked to recall that it was he, and not Sharp, who was eventually forced to write the introduction for the De Quincey volume (over Sharp's name), when his "rosy" friend was taken ill with the first of his long, debilitating breakdowns. See Everyman Remembers, p. 77, and "William Sharp and Fiona Macleod," P. 112.

4. Richard Le Gallienne, "The Mystery of 'Fiona Macleod,"' Forum, XLV (February 1911), 174.

5. "Some Personal Reminiscences of Walter Pater," Atlantic Monthly, XXIV (December 1894), 812.

6. Perhaps there is evidence that Sharp never quite outgrew his childhood need to fantasize in his strong predisposition to tales of this kind of derring-do. He apparently tried to use his literary editorship of The Young Folks' Paper, for which he wrote adventure stories for children, as an outlet, so that he might better restrain himself in his other work. But the need to create almost theatrically romantic plots was always bursting out afresh. In 1904, he published, as Fiona Macleod's no less, a historical short story entitled "The King's Ring," which was based on events of bravado and intrigue in the American colonies during the Stuart era (Pall Mall Magazine, XXXI [May and June 1904], 36-48, 222-233). He planned with similar melodrama an unpublished tale (outlined in the nineties), to be called either "Nostalgia" or "The Ambitions of Zora," set in Constantinople and Paris during the Arabic revolts of the 1830's (Papers of William Sharp, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh).

7. In a letter to a friend in 1888, Sharp wrote, "What has always impressed me deeply---how deeply I can scarcely say---is the blind despotism of fate . . . This blind, terrible, indifferent Fate, this tyrant Chance, slays or spares, mutilates or rewards, annihilates or passes by without heed, without thought, with absolute blankness of purpose, aim, or passion" (Memoir, I, 216).

8. Sharp's identification with Shelley, and the fact that he was working on his Shelley biography at this same time, may suggest that Fern Place had Field Place as a model.

9. Jean Jacques Rousseau, Emile, trans. Barbara Foxley (London, 1963), 26.

10. William Wordsworth "Residence in London," Prelude, Book VII, lines 685 passim.

11. "Chelsea Hospital and Its Inhabitants," Good Words, XXVI (November 1851, 705.

12. Hyperesthesia seems to have been responsible for Ruskin's outcries against the city in his later years. See John D. Rosenberg, The Darkening Glass: A Portrait of Ruskin's Genius (New York, 1961), pp. 181-185.

13. "Madge o' the Pool: A Thames Etching," The Gipsy Christ and Other Tales (Chicago, 1895), p. 76.

14. Ibid., P. 78.

15. "Chelsca Hospital," P. 705.

16. "A Memory of Verona," Good Words, XXX (June 1889), 383.

17. Ibid., pp. 390-391.

18. Philip Bourke Marston, For a Song's Sake and Other Stories (London, 1887), ed. William Sharp. Introductory memoir, p. xl.

19. "Dust and Fog," Good Words, XXIV (October 1883), 721-723. This article is not included in the bibliography Elizabeth Sharp appended to volume II of her Memoir, but internal evidence suggests fairly conclusively that it is not the work of another William Sharp. Its topic is consistent with Sharp's early interest in science, and the range of cities used as examples is limited to those Sharp would have known best, Glasgow and London. The author's main point of departure is an essay by a Scottish scientist (John Aitken, Royal Society of Edinburgh). Also notable is that the article appeared in Good Words, a magazine with which Sharp was to have long and frequent association. Elizabeth Sharp's failure to mention "Dust and Fog" may be easily explained by its lack of literary interest.

20. Ibid., p. 723.

21. Ibid., p. 722.

22. William Delisle Hay, The Doom of the Great City; being the narrative of a survivor written A.D. 1942 (London, 1880), p. 4. Hay appears to have been a wild utopian visionary who finally found his "place." A chronological list of his works is a biographical sketch in itself. After the sixty-years' perspective on "the Great City" came Three Hundred Years Hence; or a voice from posterity (London, 1881), then Brighter Britain! or Settler and Maori in Northern New Zealand (London, 1882). The Fungus-Hunter's Guide and Field Memorandum Book (London, 1887) was obviously intended to help converts survive their escape from civilization.

23. Doom of the Great City, p. 10.

24. Ibid., p. 20.

25. Ibid., pp. 21-22.

26. The Children of To-morrow (London, 1889), P. 21.

27. Letter to Patrick Geddes, 1896(?), Papers of Patrick Geddes, National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh.

28. In The Gipsy Christ and Other Tales (1895), which was largely a retrospective collection of short stories, some of which had previously appeared in magazines. Its publication was designed to occur simultaneously with that of Fiona Macleod's early writings, many of which appeared between 1894 and 1896, in order to provide circumstantial evidence that William Sharp was not the author of the Macleod work.

29. "Madge o' the Pool," p. 102.

30. Ibid., pp. 75-77.

31. Ibid., P. 92.

32. Ibid., P. 9 3.

33. Ibid., P. 125.

34. The Sport of Chance (London, 1888), III, 44-45.

35. Ibid., II, 300-301.

36. Life of Heinrich Heine (London, 1888), p. 38.

37. Life of Browning (London, 1890), p. I 1.

38. Ibid., pp. 11-12.

39. Ibid., P. 28.

40. Ibid.

41. Rhys, Everyman Remembers, Foreword, P. vii.

42. Ibid., p. 8.

43. Ibid., p. 9.

44. Carl E. Schorske, "The Idea of the City in European Thought," in The Historian and the City, ed. Oscar Handlin and John Burchard (Cambridge, Mass., 1963), P. 96.

45. Ibid., pp. 104-105.

46. See Oscar Handlin, "The City as a Field for Historical Study," in The Historian and the City, ed. Handlin and Burchard, p. 9.

47. Heine, p. 54.

48. Rhys, "William Sharp and Fiona Macleod," p. 112. Quoted in Memoir, I, 170-171.

49. Ernest Rhys, "Proteus," Century, LXXVI (August 1908), 583.

50. "The Isle of Arran," Art Journal, XLVII (July 1885), 205.

51. Though Wells's sense of place was very strong, he did not explicitly link it with the identity crises among his contemporary artists and writers; he considered the "artistic" persona a self-protective strategy among his associates, one which he says he himself consciously avoided. Experiment in Autobiography (New York, 1934), pp. 529-530.

52. Quoted in Oscar Lewis, Hearn and His Biographers: The Record of a Literary Controversy (San Francisco, 1930), pp. 6-7.